Components of Food – Deficiency Diseases Access complete course on Our food must contain all the essential nutrients in right quantity. Such food is called balanced diet. Sometimes a certain nutrient is missing from the diet. The lack of the nutrient in the diet over longer period causes diseases or disorders in our body, called as deficiency diseases or also called nutritional deficiencies. Protein and Carbohydrate Deficiency: Deficiency of proteins lead to stunted growth, face swelling, discoloration of the hair, different skin diseases and also lead to diarrhoea. If the diet is deficient in proteins as well as carbohydrates over a long time then there is a threat of stopping the growth completely. Mineral Deficiency: Deficiency of calcium causes muscular cramps, abnormal heart beat etc. Iron is necessary for making a protein called haemoglobin, in red blood cells. Haemoglobin helps in carrying the oxygen from lungs to other parts of the body. Deficiency of iron result in lack of haemoglobin and therefore lack of red blood cells. It causes poor absorption of oxygen which lead to fatigue, poor performance in work or school, which often lead to disease called anaemia.Deficiency of iodine causes poor growth and development of body especially it leads to mental retardation in children. It causes deficiency disease called goiter. Vitamin deficiency: Vitamin A deficiency causes poor vision, it may cause night blindness or even complete blindness. Deficiency of vitamin D causes poor absorption of calcium and so bones becomes soft and weak. The disease is called Rickets. Deficiency of vitamin B1 causes beriberi, a disease which causes weak muscle and very little energy to work. Vitamin C deficiency causes scurvy, a disease in which there is bleeding from gums, inability of body to heal the wounds in time which causes loss of blood and other diseases.